Javan Warty Pig Conservation Breeding Programme

To breed and increase awareness of Javan warty pigs in Indonesia


The Javan warty pig (Sus verrucosus), endemic to Java and neighbouring islands, is a highly endangered species threatened by loss of habitat, especially of stands of teak (Tectona grandis) forest or similar forest plantations, by intensive poaching performed by sport hunters and by farmers protecting their crops, and by poisoning. Another possible risk is competition from and hybridisation with the sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa vittatus). Reliable population estimates do not exist, but the species has seen a dramatic population reduction since 1980, with many subpopulations being lost completely since then. Historically, the species was present on Java, Madura Island and Bawean Island; its present distribution is highly fragmented into small pockets of suitable habitat. It is extinct on Madura. Two subspecies are recognised. The nominate form (S. v. verrucosus) occurs on Java (and formerly Madura), the second subspecies (S. v. blouchi) is confined to Bawean Island in the Java Sea.


With a view of establishing a genetically pure insurance population in Java to prevent the species' extinction and to raise local awareness about this endemic species, an in-country ex situ breeding project has been initiated. Reintroduction is a long-term goal after the present threats have come under control.

The project aims:


  • To establish a breeding colony of pure Javan warty pigs at the 14 ha Cikananga Endangered Species Centre with a minimum number of six pairs as founders.
  • To test the genetic purity of all founders.
  • To establish additional ex situ colonies both in Java and elsewhere with offspring bred at Cikananga.
  • To study the biology of this little known species and continue assessment of the wild population.
  • To create awareness among the people of Java about this highly threatened endemic species.


WAZA Conservation Project 08024 is implemented by the Cikananga Species Conservation Centre and the Indonesian Research Centre for Biology, with support provided by the IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group and the EAZA Pig TAG, and is financially supported by Los Angeles Zoo, Wroclaw Zoo and the Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations (ZGAP).




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