(Western Palearctic) Red deer
(Cervus elaphus spp)
Facts about this animal
Did you know?
that in order to ensure that the measurement of red deer and other hunting trophies was as objective as possible, the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) established, in 1934, standard formulas for the measurement of trophies which are now internationally accepted? These CIC Measurement Formulas. have been amended and improved over time, while becoming more widely implemented.
|Name (Scientific)||Cervus elaphus spp|
|Name (English)||(Western Palearctic) Red deer|
|Name (French)||Cerf rouge|
|Name (German)||Rothirsch, Edelhirsch|
|Name (Spanish)||Ciervo colorado|
|Local names||Catalonian: Cèrvol comú
Croatian: Jelen obi?ni
Czech: Jelen evropský
Danish, Norwegian: Kronhjort, Krondyr
Finnish: Saksanhirvi, Punahirvi
Italian: Cervo rosso
Hindi: Barasingha (also used for Cervus duvauceli)
Kashmiri: Hangal, Honglus (male), Minyamar (female)
Latvian: Jelen evropskü
Lithuanian: Taurusis elnias
Polish: Jelen europejski
Romanian: Cerbul (comun) lidvan
Romansh: Tscherv cotschen
Slovak: Jelen lesný
|CITES Status||Appendix I (subspecies hanglu only), Appendix II (subspecies bactrianus only), Appendix III (subspecies barbarus only in Tunisia and Algeria).|
|CMS Status||Cervus elaphus barbarus: Appendix I|
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|Range||Barbary stag (Cervus elaphus barbarus): 1996) Algeria, Morocco (reintroduced), Tunisia Tyrrhenian red deer (Cervus e. corsicanus): Corsica, Sardinia Western/Central/Eastern European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus, hippelaphus, hispanicus, montanus etc.): Albania, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Hercegowina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Macedonia FYR, Moldavia, Montenegro, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (mainly Kaliningrad area), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands (Veluwe, Flevoland), Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom Caspian (Caucasus) red deer (Cervus elaphus maral): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey Extralimital (introduced) populations in Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, USA.|
|Habitat||Originally living in open woodland and grasslands, the red deer needs today large forests as a retreat to avoid hunting pressure and intense agriculture. In mountain ranges, the deer use during summer alpine meadows up to 2800 m above sea level, and in parts of the range they may be adapted to living in moorlands.|
|Wild population||C. e. barbarus: about 5000 C. e. corsicanus: about 6000, mainly on Sardinia C. e. maral: more than 20,000 No global data available for the other "subspecies". There are at least 150'000 red deer in Germany, 100'000 in France, 30'000 in Spain and 26'000 in Switzerland, etc.|
|Zoo population||Reported to ISIS (2008): C. e. barbarus: 72 C. e. corsicanus: 0 C. e. maral: 0 Other Western Palearctic subspecies or subspecific hybrids: 707 (the real number kept is much higher, as almost none of the Wildlife Parks in Central Europe contribute to ISIS).|
In the Zoo
How this animal should be transported
Hard antlers should be removed before transport under proper restraint and, where required, sedation. No deer with antlers in velvet at a stage of growth which could be damaged easily should be transported where there is a risk of injury.
For air transport, Container Note 73 of the IATA Live Animals Regulations, should be followed.
Find this animal on ZooLex
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Why do zoos keep this animal
The red deer is usually kept for educational purposes, most animals in Europe being kept by "Wildparks", i.e. institutions focussing on native species. Some of the subspecies are threatened with extinction however, and viable ex situ populations will contribute to the longer term survival of these subspecies. Consequently, regional conservation breeding programmes has been established for the subspecies barbarus, (and for bactrianus, macneilli and sibiricus).