Banggai Cardinal Fish

(Pterapogon kauderni)


Banggai Cardinal Fish IUCN ENDANGERED (EN)


Facts about this animal

Bangai cardinal fish are mainly reef-dwellers, that occupy over-hangs, reef caves and seagrass beds near reefs. They feed on crustaceans, small fish and plankton, They mouth brooders. The males carry the eggs for 18 to 24 days before releasing 15 to 40 near a long-spined sea urchin (or anemone) which provides protection.

Did you know?
that Banggai cardinal fish hover directly above long spined sea urchins, with the younger ones staying closer to the urchins so they can retreat among the spines when threatened?


Name (Scientific) Pterapogon kauderni
Name (English) Banggai Cardinal Fish
Name (French) Apogon de Kaudern
Name (German) Banggai-Kardinalbarsch
Name (Spanish) Cardenal de Banggai
CITES Status Not listed (a proposal to list the species in Appendix II failed in 2007)
CMS Status Not listed



Photo Copyright by
Jens Petersen



Range Indonesia (Banggai Island). This species has an extremely limited geographic range (5,500 km²).
Habitat Coral reefs, seagrass beds, and open areas of sand and rubble of up to 4.5 m depth, being most common at 1.5–2.5 m depth.
Wild population An estimated 700,000–900,000 fish per year are internationally traded. In a proposal to list the species in CITES Appendix II, a population estimate of 2.4 million was given. This was questioned, however, by the range state.
Zoo population 524 reported to ISIS, but commonly kept by privat aquarists.

In the Zoo

Banggai Cardinal Fish


How this animal should be transported

For air transport, Container Note 51 of the IATA Live Animals Regulations should be followed.

Fish must be unpacked carefully and under low illumination.


Find this animal on ZooLex


Photo Copyright by
Jens Petersen

Why do zoos keep this animal

Banggai cardinal fish are not yet on the IUCN Red List, but there are fears that the current level of exploitation for the hobby aquarist market is not sustainable. A proposal to list the species in Appendix II of CITES was made at COP 14 (in 2007) but not adopted. Maintaining a self-sustaining population for educational purposes is therefore a reasonable task for zoos and aquariums. therefore